Particle Interactions

Introduction The fundamental particle interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions. There are four fundamental interactions known to exist: Gravitational force Electromagnetic force Strong nuclear force Weak nuclear force. The modern quantum mechanical view of the fundamental forces, other than gravity, is … Read more

Constituents Of The Atom

Introduction The atoms of all elements are made up of three particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons are at the centre of the atom. The centre of the atom is called a nucleus. The diameter of the nucleus is about 110000thof the diameter of the atom. In this article, these three … Read more

Classification Of Particles

Introduction Subatomic particles are classified based on their mass, type of interaction and electrical charge. Classification based on the mass of the particles is the most basic way of understanding the subatomic particles. The following figure shows the classification of subatomic particles based on their mass. In this article, classification based on mass of the particles … Read more

Hooke’s Law

Introduction There is one common property behind stretching of a spring and rubber band that come back to their original shape. The property that allows any material to regain its shape is called elasticity. The fundamental law that governs this interesting phenomenon is the Hooke’s law.  In this article, Hooke’s law, a demonstration to understand … Read more

Motion Along A Straight Line

Introduction In any scientific experiment that involves moving objects, motion of the objects is defined by various parameters such as speed, velocity and acceleration. It is imperative to learn the meaning of these terms and the relationship between these terms. A. Speed One of the most fundamental constants in science is the speed of light … Read more

Electromotive Force & Internal Resistance

A. Electromotive Force When a charge passes through the power supply, it gains electrical energy. The power supply is said to have an electromotive force, or emf. Electromotive force is measured in volts. Electromotive force is not a force. Instead, it is the energy gained by the charge that comes from the chemical energy of … Read more

Current Voltage Characteristics

Introduction In this article, the relationship between current and voltage for an ohmic conductor, semiconductor diode and filament lamp is discussed. Ohm’s law is also discussed. If the relationship between the current through the conductor and the potential difference across its end is explored, the relationship will vary according to the circuit element. Conductors, for … Read more

Current Electricity

Electricity is a set of physical phenomena associated with the presence of motion of electric charge. Electricity has various uses in everyday life. It is one of the easiest ways to convert energy. In the 1870s, incandescent light bulbs were invented. It was one of the first publicly available applications of electric power. In the … Read more